Mushroom spore syringes are designed to hold mushroom spores in an environment where they can be kept safe until they are ready to be injected into what is called a substrate. This is typically a material that acts as a base for the mushrooms to grow. Once properly cleaned and prepared, the substrate is then ready to be injected with mushroom spores, which will gradually grow into full size psilocybin mushrooms.
In laboratories, the substrate is usually a material that can be easily monitored for changes caused by the environment, and depending on the experiment being done, there might be various devices ready to examine the growth of the mushrooms and study any of their properties that could be used for medical purposes.
In order to inoculate the substrate, researchers first prepare the syringes containing lab grade psilocybe cubensis spores, then they add a small amount to colonize a part of the substrate. In most cases, you only have to inject about 3 milliliters of the spore solution in order to colonize about 1 liter of substrate.
The shelf life of mushroom spores can be quite long. In some cases, they can last for years, and if you refrigerate them properly they can easily be used to inject a substrate a long time from now. Outside of laboratory conditions, however, the syringes themselves have to be used within about 8-9 months of purchasing them, otherwise the water will begin to develop bacteria.